Conditions And Diseases

Common Eye Diseases

Diabetic retinopathy causes abnormalities in retinal blood vessels which leak and bleed to cause vision loss. Over time, scarring of the retina can cause a retinal detachment. Treatment in early stages includes intraocular injections and laser therapy. These treatments need to be done on a frequent basis, especially if blood sugar control and blood pressure are not optimized. Bleeding or scarring is treated with surgery to remove the vitreous and repair the scarring.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible vision loss. The more common “dry” form involves progressive death of the cells and loss of pigment in the macula. The early stages show yellow deposits, or drusen, under the retina. Stopping smoking, taking AREDS vitamins, and lifestyle changes are most beneficial in the early stages.

New fragile and leaking blood vessels growing through the retina lead to “Wet AMD” leaking fluid and blood causes a blinding scar with loss of central vision. Intraocular injections are the main method of treatment. To avoid frequent injections, a “tank” of medicine can be surgically implanted, or a gene therapy can be performed.

Posterior vitreous detachment occurs when the vitreous gel in the eye collapses with age and separates from the retina. This is typically associated with new floaters or flashes of light.
A careful examination of the eye is necessary to detect tears or retinal detachment, which may need either laser or vitrectonny. Sometimes especially thin areas of retina can be treated prophylactically.

Retinal detachment occurs when the retina separates from the back of the eye, leading to permanent blindness if it is not surgically reattached, Typical symptoms include sudden onset of flashes of light, a large batch of new floaters with shadows, or blind spots in vision. Decreased side vision is often noted, Treatment includes placement of a gas bubble (pneumatic retinopexy) in the office, placement of a band around the eye (scleral buckle) or removal of the vitreous gel and replacement with gas or silicone oil.

Epiretinal membrane involves wrinkling of the macula leading to blurred or distorted vision. This pucker, or a fine membrane-scar, is generally a side effect of maturity. A vitrectomy can be performed to remove gel and scar tissue.
Macular hole causes a sudden loss of central vision and often happens when the vitreous gel pulls the central retina, leading to a stretch hole in the macula. Vitrectomy with a gas bubble is used to treat this. Part-time face down positioning is necessary as well as avoiding any flying until the bubble is fully dissipate.

Floaters often occur when the vitreous gel separates from the back of the eye. In some people, these floaters last more than six months and cause trouble with reading, driving or other important tasks. A vitrectomy can be performed to remove these floaters.

Uveitis represents inflammation in the eye. It is sometimes caused by systemic diseases and may require treatment with steroid injections in the eye or irnmunosuppressive medications.
Central Serous Retinopathy is a chronic disease with distortion of central vision due to fluid under the macula. High stress, caffeine intake. testosterone, or steroid use are risk factors for the disease.

Macular Edema is a condition characterized by the accumulation of fluid in the macula, which is the central part of the retina responsible for sharp, detailed vision. The swelling of the macula can cause distortion or blurring of central vision, which can make it difficult to perform tasks such as reading or driving.

Treatment for macular edema may involve medications, such as corticosteroids or anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) drugs, which can help reduce the inflammation and fluid buildup. In some cases, laser therapy or other surgical procedures may be necessary to manage the condition. 

Genetic Ocular Conditions are eye disorders that are caused by changes or mutations in a person’s DNA. These conditions can affect any part of the eye, including the cornea, lens, retina, optic nerve, and other structures. Some genetic ocular conditions are inherited from a person’s parents, while others occur spontaneously due to new genetic mutations.

Retinal Vascular Occlusions are a type of eye condition that occurs when one or more blood vessels in the retina become blocked or obstructed, leading to decreased blood flow to parts of the retina. The retina is the part of the eye responsible for sensing light and transmitting visual information to the brain, and it requires a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients to function properly. When the blood supply to the retina is reduced, it can cause vision loss, ranging from mild to severe.

The main risk factors for retinal vascular occlusions include high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, smoking, and other underlying cardiovascular diseases. Treatment for retinal vascular occlusions depends on the severity of the condition and can include medications to improve blood flow, laser therapy, and surgery.

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